brooks

Stephanie Brooks

ENG 7020

Dr. Strombeck

11 January 2016

Assignment One

  1. The keywords for this assignment were “Theory” and “Oscar Wao.” Also, the search was limited in other ways including whether or not the article was peer-reviewed and published since 2009.
  2. Ashley Kunsa’s article “History, Hair, and Reimagining Racial Categories in Junot Díaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao” was published in 2013. Kunsa includes the term “postnationalism” in her article.
  3. Postnationalism is interested in the reorganizing of peoples, cultures, histories, and rights. In her article, What is Postnationalism?” Tey Mariana Nunn claims postnationalism is a theoretical construct concerned with introducing current and historical discourse of foreign nations’ institutions into broader contexts and geographical locations. Nunn also notes postnationalism does not signal the end of individual nations’ identity but a contribution to more inclusive understanding of identity and borders. In more specific example, in Paths to Post-Nationalism: A Critical Ethnography of Language and Identity, Monica Hellor claims that an individual’s ability to speak multiple languages fixes that person’s progress and worth in a globalizing world. Other specific institutions postnationalism addresses include law, gender, and politics.

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

24 January 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources 1: Booth

Summary:

In “Telling and Showing,” Booth claims the author can never delete him or herself from the text perfectly. Additionally, he argues that writing to tell instead of to show can be redundant because the author’s decisions are always present in the text.

Key terms:

  1. Authority
  2. Humanism
  3. Rhetoric
  4. Affective Fallacy
  5. Durational Realism

Term 1 significance: Authority: page 4, 3rd paragraph

 This term is significant to Booth’s essay because he uses it to discuss how showing and telling both help to discern an author’s intentions—if that is possible. Further, noting the use of specific signs or words and biographical research on an author might clarify the aim of or impetus for a text. Specifically, Booth argues that telling is an important to the comic effectiveness of stories in the Decameron; however, he notes that telling is most effective as a precursor to showing.

Term 2 significance: Humanism: page 15, footnote

 Humanism is a theory that defines literature as text that grows compassion for what are believed to be ceaseless truths and judgments about humanity as a whole, with no accounting for different cultures or belief systems. Many of these truths center on ideas concerning justice. Booth argues that the Decameron, although lacking a continuous and dedicated Humanistic creed, is literature. This is problematic if Booth is writing from a Literary Humanist perspective because he cannot point to the unanimous and reoccurring principles of the text.

Term 3 significance: Affective Fallacy: page 16, footnote

The Affective Fallacy assumes a work of literature and its effects on its audience are and should be thought of separately. This is important to Booth because he claims he would like to remain at what he feels is a reasonable distance from the text in order to be objective.

Passage Paraphrase: page 16

“First we must erase all direct addresses to the reader, all commentary in the author’s own name. When the author of Decameron speaks to us directly, in both introduction and conclusion, whatever illusion we may have that we are dealing immediately with Fiammetta and her friends is shattered. As an astonishing number of authors and critics since Flaubert have agreed that such a direct, unmediated commentary will not do. And even those authors who would allow it have often, like E.M. Forster, forbidden it except on certain limited subjects.”

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Booth seems to advocate for removing express commentary in fiction. Also, If an author includes annotation or changes in point of view he or she disrupts the reader’s suspension of disbelief. The author should try to make him or herself as invisible as possible.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: Why and when is it important for an author to disguise him or herself? How does the idea that literature conveys universal truths erase the author?

Question 2: Could knowing more about an author positively inform close reading? Also, could too much information about an author cloud a close reading?

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr.Strombeck

ENG 7010

24 January 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources 1: Jakobson

Summary:

In “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances,” Roman Jakobson argues that the Aphasic with Contiguity Disorder (Combination Disorder) have better control over word meaning but not sentence units while the Aphasic with Similarity Disorder (Selection Disorder) can define word units in context. Jakonbson argues that synonyms can aid these patients in using their language lexicon. However, the Aphasic with Selection Disorder do not have the ability to recall the words themselves. Jakobson argues that Romantic writers and poets in general use more metaphor in part due their form of literature and also in part due to other more personal or cultural factors while Realists and prose writers use more metonymy for the same reasons.

Key terms:

  1. Phoneme
  2. Declension
  3. Semiotics
  4. Morpheme
  5. Linguistics

Term 1 significance: Linguistics: page 116, 2nd paragraph

 Roman Jakobson claims scientists’ understanding of Aphasia would increase if Linguists were to contribute observations to the ongoing discussion of this disease. Linguistics is the study of what language means, how it looks, and its contextual meaning. In asserting his claim, Jakobson makes clear the impacts of interdisciplinary scientific study on the understanding of different types of Aphasia and their manifestations. Specifically, Jakobson illuminates how the uses of metaphor and metonymy align the dichotomous nature of the two most common types of this disease. Furthermore, the author claims possible advances in Linguistics are possible if such collaboration should occur.

Term 2 significance: Semiotics, page 115, 1st paragraph

 Semiotics is the study of words, phonemes, morphemes, and other language units as signs. These signs allow various types of communication. Jakobson believes that Semiotic scholarship concerning Aphasia would yield positive results concerning the process of speech and language recognition. Also, as some with Aphasic symptoms have trouble making meaning from written and oral language based on the individual units or signs including letters and other units of language, Jakobson argues that Semiotic scholarship specializing in human relationships with signs would improve knowledge concerning this disease and communication in general.

Term 3 significance: Phoneme: page 118, 2nd paragraph

 A phoneme is a unit of sound that when combined with other phonemes, make up words and other units of language. Jakobson uses phonemes to illustrate the nature of one of Aphasia’s different forms- Atactic Aphasia. When a person can recognize words but not the individual sounds of letters in words, that person cannot recognize the phonemes in the word. These phonemes include both vowels and consonants.

Passage Paraphrase: page 126, 1st paragraph

“A typical feature of agrammatism is the abolition of inflection: there appear such “unmarked” categories as the infinitive in place of the diverse finite verbal forms and, in languages with declension, the nominative instead of all the oblique cases.”

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Agrammatism occurs when a type of inflection is lost and spoken grammar suffers. Conjugation (verbs) and declension (nouns, adjectives, pronouns) practices fail and the patient loses the ability to use plurality, case, gender and person, among other things. This inability occurs with nouns, pronouns, adjectives and articles. The nominative is the verb that signifies the subject of the sentence.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: What kind of digital humanities projects could illuminate the biological components of the Similarity or the Contiguity Aphasic Disorders? How would this information help medical professionals and Linguists?

Question 2: How does a thoughtful consideration of metaphor’s prevalence in poetry and Romantic literature and metonymy’s frequency in Realist and prose literature allow greater understanding of speech and communication disorders?

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

January 31 2016

 Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- “What is an Author?”

 Summary:

“What is an Author?” is a treatise by Michel Foucault meant to illuminate an author’s function. In his view, authors’ works should be contextualized through a prismatic understanding of the period and law under which author lives, the culture and time period in which the author’s work is read, the particular impact the author to his or her academic conversation, and the author’s various notions of identity.

Key terms:

  1. Marx
  2. Discursive
  3. Science
  4. Ideological
  5. Freud

Term 1 significance: Marx

Karl Marx not only argues that class inequality leads to discontent, but also asserts that classes themselves should be eliminated. Foucault names Marx “transdiscursive” (Foucault 217). For Foucault, this is significant because it identifies Marx as an author of an “endless possibility of discourse” (217). Foucault names those in this camp differently than other authors because of their progressive impact. Marxism is the body of theory born out of Marx’ observations and assertions.

Term 2 significance: Freud

Among others troubles, Sigmund Freud diagnosed perceived emotional and corporal ills through discussions concerning individual experiences, thoughts and unconscious imaginings. Foucault names Freud as “transdiscursive” in addition to Marx (Foucault 217). Again, Foucault explains that Freud’s method of criticism, Psychoanalytic analysis, is a theory in its’ own right. Therefore, Freud ideas are significant to Foucault as future critics could incorporate them into potential impending works. This dialogue would continue to shift Freud’s definitions and assertions, unlike those proposed by theorists in more scientific fields. Freud argues that information remains static in scientific research.

Term 3 significance: Discursive

Discursive discourse seems to be a methodical analysis combined with the written or spoken interchange of thoughts. Foucault creates a new group of thinkers working to construct new mindsets. For example, he terms Freud and Marx “founders of discursivity” (217). He explains these writers are “authors of theory, tradition, or discipline in which other books and authors will find their place” (216-217). Further, he explains that they produce “something other than their discourse, yet something belonging to what they founded” (218). In recognizing these thinkers differently, Foucault anticipates new academic discourses concerning literary theory.

Passage Paraphrase:

“Our culture has metamorphosed this idea of narrative, or writing as something designed to ward off death. Writing has been linked to sacrifice, even to the sacrifice of life: it is now a voluntary effacement that does not need to be represented in books, since it is brought about in the writer’s very existence” (Foucault 206).

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

Foucault argues that while authorship used to preserve a writer’s self in physical books for all time, it is now common for the author to wish to disappear to ensure his or her acceptance by critics of his or her day.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: How does the accessibility of books change their significance? How does this play out globally?

Question 2: Why are the three selves Foucault suggests necessary? What do they preserve?

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

28 January 2016

 Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- “Panopticism”

Summary Sentence:

In “Panopticism,” Michel Foucault develops the idea that discipline generates knowledge and power for authorities and those considered normal. He specifically names Benham’s Panopticon structure as a surveillance mechanism to ensure the individual’s obedience and productivity while housed or situated in institutions such as schools, prisons, hospitals, and factories.

Key terms:

  1. Panopticism
  2. Discipline
  3. Modality
  4. Technology
  5. Investigation

Term 1 significance: Discipline

Foucault conceptualizes discipline as a far-reaching power mechanism for those in authority. He explains that this system not only has the ability to constantly observe individuals—but the power to correct behavior. He argues that Bentham’s Panopticon is an instrument of control, meant to force individuals into socially acceptable norms defined by authorities. For example, the author delineates prison operations, illuminating the origins of enforced rehabilitation and prisoners’ learned self-regulation.

Term 2 significance: Technology

Foucault describes the Panoption as technology. In doing do, he claims it is a kind machinery to resolve complications for those in power. He argues the implementation of the Panopticon structure not only provides a method to systematize power structures and authority, but also observes the powerless with a pressurized surveillance. For Foucault, the Panopticon machine solves problems associated with those who do not conform and places them in institutions where they can be taught, rehabilitated, or treated until they fit into bodies, students or workers exemplifying (possibly oppressive) prescribed behavior.

Term 3 significance: Investigation

Foucault claims that investigation methodology manifested out of religious Inquisition practices. He does not agree with the ways in which inquisitions were originally conducted and does not shy away from their relationships to religious authority figures. Yet, he does recognize the ways in which the inquisition governs itself as a methodology, especially concerning modern scientific thought. He compares the scope of Bentham’s Panopticon invention to that of the development of the investigation.

Passage Paraphrase:

“To achieve this, it is at once too much and too little that the prisoner should be constantly observed by an inspector: too little, for what matters is that he knows himself to be observed; too much because he has no need in fact of being so” (201).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

 Since the watcher or authority is invisible, the prisoner assumes that he or she is always under observation, thus the need for observation is negated.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: How does institutionalized separation (from those in hospitals, schools, prisons, etc.) impact the public? How does it impact those living/ staying in the institutions?

Question 2: Could interdisciplinary study be problematic concerning institutionalized authority?

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

7 February 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Structure

 Summary:

In “Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences,” Jacques Derrida presents a framework for thinking about concepts and signs. He explains two different ways to interpret the meaning of structures—humans can try to “decipher” them in context or “play” with structures, as they exist presently (Derrida 292).

Key terms:

  1. Origin                                     
  2. Empiricism                                         
  3. Ethnology                                          
  4. Bricolage                                            
  5. Metaphysics

 

Term 1 significance: Bricolage

 Derrida asserts that a bricolage occurs when a person must use a word that has changed meaning in order to communicate his or her intentions. He uses this term to emphasize the broken and unknowable nature of discourse without context. 285

Term 2 significance: Metaphysics

 Derrida explains that metaphysics or human reality can only be discussed through being as defined by metaphysics. Without the sign or structure of a discourse, humans have no discourse to discover themselves. This leads to limited understanding. 280

Term 3 significance: Ethnology

 Derrida explains that even while trying to decenter European thought, Ethnologists use terms defined by European thought. Ethnocentrism occurs unless an entirely new system of signs and structures is employed by each different group of people studied or studying themselves- and even then, the ideas remain European. Cultural decentering of European thought and making Europe not the culture of reference but still the European ethnologist, trying to get out of ethnocentrism, still employs the signs imagined by the European Ethnology. 282

Passage Paraphrase:

“One could say—rigorously using that word whose scandalous signification is always obliterated in French—that this movement of play, permitted by the lack or absence of a center or origin, is the movement of supplementarity. One cannot determine the center and exhaust totalization because the sign which replaces the center, which supplements it, taking the center’s place in its absence—this sign is added, occurs as a surplus, as a supplement” (Derrida 289).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Meaning is added to a sign after the sign is created through the passing of time and place. The sign is created to convey a meaning but the center or origin of the meaning is pushed aside for a supplementary meaning and the structure then becomes associated with the supplementary meaning instead. This makes tracing the origins of the original or total meaning of the structure impossible to state.

Discussion questions:

 Question 1: If one decides to “play” with words and decenter their meaning, but does so in a written text examined later, would that text them become at risk for “deciphering”?

Question 2: If one “deciphers” language incorrectly, is that not accidentally “playing” with it?

Tweet, tweet:

https://bravetodream.wordpress.com/tag/derrida

http://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/derrida-and-deconstruction

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

7 February 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Animal

 Summary Sentence:

In “The Animal That Therefore I Am (More To Follow),” Jacques Derrida argues that humans have claimed divine- inspired dominance over animals as a general group. Derrida makes comparisons between animals and humans then argues that they are not opposites.

Key terms:

  1. Concept
  2. Subject
  3. Animal
  4. Nudity
  5. Response

Term 1 significance: Response

Derrida questions if humans can understand each other’s responses if language is a structure of symbols and signs that humans do not really understand or even perhaps agree. He asks if responses like the purring of a cat are any more opaque or if humans just understand them that way. 378

Term 2 significance: Animal

 Derrida places humans side by side with animals. He explains that humans are different from animals because of a consciousness of nudity.

He claims that humans and animals are “pressed together” in a chain of understanding and naming. Further, he explains that “being after, being alongside, being near an animal is how we define ourselves” (Derrida 379). He will only define the human as following the animal.

Term 3 significance: Concept

 Derrida explains that no matter how humans name existence, words are concepts and symbols on which humans do not all agree or understand. Words are signs that have been changed or decentralized therefore, “existence refuses to conceptualized” (Derrida 379). There is no single way to make conclusions about existence. There is too much lost context and sign and structure obscure meaning.   Concepts are only ideas of ideas.

Passage Paraphrase:

Derrida explains his interest in animals. He states “my passion of the animal other: seeing oneself seen naked under a gaze that is vacant to the extent of being bottomless, at the same time innocent and cruel perhaps, perhaps sensitive and impassive, good and bad, uninterpretable, unreadable, undecidable, abyssal and secret” (Derrida 381).

Later he asks, “ What happens to the fraternity of brothers when an animal enters the scene?” (Derrida 381).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Derrida argues that nature of the animal is unknowable, yet complementary to human nature. He then describes how animal nature is similar to humans by listing traits commonly associated with humans.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: If an animal cannot cover its tracks, why would it try to hide after it does something “wrong”? Does that make it more human?

Question 2: When one recalls human history, is one also recalling animal history? If one is recording one’s own life, should one record the lives of one’s animals?

Tweet, tweet:

https://inhumanities.wordpress.com/2009/10/03/the-passion-of-the-animal-derrida/

https://www/lrb.co.uk/v26/n21/judith-butler/jacques-derrida

 

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

15 February 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Williams

 

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Marxism and Literature,” Raymond Williams presents a framework for Marxist theory as it was originally intended. He argues for the revival of the indivisible relationship between human thought and human work.

 

Key terms:

  1. Superstructure
  2. Plevhanov
  3. Determination
  4. Overdetermination
  5. Historical Objectivity

 

Term 1 significance: Superstructure

Williams explains that Marxism uses “metaphor” (77). Superstructure exists in “legal and political forms, forms of consciousness, and a process in which men become conscious of a fundamental economic conflict and fight it out” (Williams 76-7). Williams explores the notion of Superstructure in relationship to the Base or Basis, an idea which he the “economic element, movement or situation” (Williams 80). Later on in the text he explains that these ideas need to be understood as symbiotic, layered and “indissoluble” (Williams 81).

 

Term 2 significance: Plevhanov

 Williams details Plevhanov’s distinction of five sequential elements. These include, “the state of economic forces, the economic conditions, the socio-political regime, the psyche of social man and various ideologies reflecting the properties of this psyche” (Williams 81). Williams does not agree with the sequential aspect. This cohesion clarifies popular and simplified versions of Marx’s thoughts, especially those lost in translation and then repeated.

 

Term 3 significance: Historical Objectivity

 Williams explains that Historical Objectivity is “the conditions in which at any point in time, people find themselves born” and the “accessible conditions into which they enter” (85). Williams uses this term to help delimitate the differences between this theory and that of Abstract Objectivity. Williams describes Abstract Objectivity as “setting limits” in such as way that is “independent of the individuals will” and in an “absolute sense that they cannot control it-they only seek to understand it and guide their actions according” (85).   These two theories stem from the Marxist idea that agency is determined by the individual and his or her relations to his or her perceived environment.

Passage Paraphrase:

When writing about the bourgeois understanding of the term “production” Williams explains “is then work on raw materials to make commodities, which enter the capitalist system of distribution and exchange” (94).

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

True bourgeois production practices only produce commodities.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: How can art be mediated but not interpreted? There would need to be an available explanation at all times?

Question 2: How does the idea of a productive force apply to the creation of human beings?

Tweet, tweet:

http://digitalhistories.yctl.org/tag/karl-marx/

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

15 February 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Eagleton

 Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Categories for a Materialist Criticism,” Terry Eagleton develops the idea of multiple modes of literary production and their relationships to the general mode of production. Further, he explains the ways in which the author’s circumstances supplement the text.

Key terms:

  1. GMP
  2. LMP
  3. Aul
  4. AI
  5. Homology

Term 1 significance: GMP

 Eagleton explains that the GMP term stands for General Mode of Production. Which he defines as “economic production occurring a historically specific context” (Eagleton 45). Eagleton uses this term to clarify the ways in which labor practices shape history and literature.

Term 2 significance: LMP

 The LMP is the Literary Mode of Production. Eagleton shows that although there are many forms of Literary Production, all of these exist within the GMP and are dictated by accessibility.

Term 3 significance: Aul

 Aul stands for Authorial Ideology. Depending on the GI (General Ideology) authors perpetuate “values, discourses, representations and beliefs” to make a text seem “real” (Eagleton 54). Authorial Ideology occurs as an author injects him or herself into a text depending on different factors including: “social class, sex, nationality, religion, geographical region, and so on” (Eagleton 58).

Passage Paraphrase:

“A literary text is related to GI not only by how it deploys language but by the particular language it deploys. Language, that most innocent and spontaneous of common currencies, in in reality a terrain scarred, fissured and divided by the cataclysms of political history, strewn with the relics of imperialist, nationalist, regionalist and class combat” (Eagleton 54).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Language can be a political tool to enforce or subvert power on different levels. Languages can unite for the purposes on unity or imperialism or they can divide for the same reasons.

Discussion questions:

Question 1:

How do independent publishers in the US subvert the GMP? Is it possible?

Question 2:

If illiteracy is the best censorship, how does that relate to school funding in different geographic regions? Are cities without the ability to pay for school censoring the education of their students?

Tweet, tweet:

http://dh.sunygeneseoenglish.org/2014/04/09/wwms-what-would-marx-say-about-digital-commons/

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

22 February 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Lisa Lowe

 Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Work, Immigration, Gender: New Subjects of Cultural Politics,” Lisa Lowe presents a framework for categorizing immigrants experience in the United States and transnational workforce. She explains that sex, nationality, race, and citizenship all occur simultaneously in the workforce and gives examples of effective worker solidarity practices.

Key terms:

  1. Transnational
  2. Occupationally ghettoized
  3. Maquiladoras
  4. Homogenization
  5. Globalization

Term 1 significance: Occupationally Ghettoized

Lowe argues, due to lack of homogenization of workers, specifically immigrants; laborers experience the double bind of the feminization of poverty and a lack of national and regional infrastructure to support their equal treatment under national laws. This leads to immigrants taking positions for low pay with unhealthy environments in which female immigrants are treated as objects by supervisors and they are alienated from their work.

Term 2 significance: Maquiladoras

 Lowe explains the effects of Global Capitalism as she details the dangerous and potentially temporary conditions in which Mexican women work for transnational companies, especially those housed in the United States. Maquiladoras are typically similar to sweatshops under patriarchal capitalism in which women make garments while holding no recourse for unfair treatment or sexual harassment.

Term 3 significance: Homogenization

Lowe argues that homogenization does not take place for immigrants or minorities. She writes that the separation of people by nationality status, race and gender strengthen patriarchal capitalism and encourage it to continue.

Passage Paraphrase:

“The law, workplaces, schooling, community organizations, family, sexual life, churches and popular culture are some of the sites that govern not only this intersection and the reproduction of radicalized and gendered social relations along that intersection, but that also mediate the interruption and reorganization of these social relations” (Lowe 45).

 Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Social institutions perpetuate radicalized and gendered social relations, but also serve as meeting points where the dismantling of those relations and assumptions can take place.

Discussion questions:

Question 1:

How would global guidelines concerning subcontracting make a difference to companies based in the United States? Compared to companies based in other countries?

Question 2:

What are the benefits of homogenization? What are the drawbacks?

Tweet, tweet:

 http://www.commondreams.org/views/2009/08/03/femicides-juarez-violence-against-women-mexico

 

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

22 February 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources-Simone de Beauvoir

 Summary Sentence or Two:

In The Second Sex, Simone de Beavoir argues that myths surrounding women’s mysteriousness are false. She, instead, claims that women’s identities are blank (seen as mysterious) unless women are allowed to be independent and free of femininity and the economics attached to the gender binary.

Key terms:

  1. Eternal Feminine
  2. Animality
  3. The Absolute Other
  4. Ambiguity
  5. Mystery

Term 1 significance: Eternal Feminine

 Simone de Beauvoir explains that the feminine ideal is thought to be fixed and universal. This is a problem because it does not accurately reflect all those who identify as women or with ideas associated with femininity. There is no one “right” way to be feminine.

Term 2 significance: Animality

 The author explains that women’s “animality is more manifest” than than men’s animality (de Beauvoir 1409). She is careful, though, to argue that “assimilating women into Nature” is ignorant (de Beauvoir 1409). This reflects a hierarchy of humans over animals in which the woman, in de Beauvoir’s view, should want to be associated with the former.

Term 3 significance: Absolute Other

 Simone de Beauvoir points to the internalized oppression women feel when they distance themselves from the concept of “Woman.” In order for women to judge their worth, they must do so from the point of view of men under patriarchy.

Passage Paraphrase:

“In those rare instances in which she holds the position of economic and social privilege, the mystery is reversed, showing that it does not pertain to one sex rather than the other, but to the situation” (de Beauvoir 1411).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

In this passage, Simone de Beauvoir sets functions apart from sex or gender, showing that it is the confines of the role that limit an individual’s progress— not their anatomy or physiology.

Discussion questions:

Question 1: How and why are women taught to deceive men?

Question 2: How is looking at the world from a man’s point of view different than looking at it from a woman’s perspective?

Tweet, tweet:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IiPSw0lNqaI

 

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

6 March 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Morrison

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and The Literary Imagination,” Toni Morrison argues that portrayals of Black people in prose can reveal much about non-Black writers’ literary imaginations. Further, she argues that images of Black people are limited, artificial and express biased cultural stereotypes.

Key terms:

  1. American Africanism
  2. American Reading Public
  3. Ignoring Race
  4. Literary whiteness
  5. Americanness

.Term 1 significance: American Africanism

Morrison explains American Africanism as a process in which “Africanlike or Africanist” characters and existence reinforce convenient stereotypes of Black people in order to solidify what it means to be a white character or person (6).

Term 2 significance: Ignoring Race

The author describes how people are brought up to ignore race like it was something negative or something that only applies to people who are not white. Further, she remarks that this act is generally considered polite. Morrison contends that ignoring race stunts progressive interaction and maintains Black people’s marginal status.

Term 3 significance: Americanness

Morrison shows that there is a possibility that American literature is not truly representative of Americans. The author questions the validity of American National Literature when she comments on the lack of true “African or African-American experience” in American literature (4).

Similarly, she wonders if historically American qualities, like individualism and masculinity are repressed discussions concerning Africanist existence (Morrison 5).

Passage Paraphrase:

 “The principle reason these matters loom large for me is that I do not have quite the same access to these traditionally useful constructs of blackness” (Morrison x).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Morrison draws attention to literary representations of manufactured blackness. Similarly, she recognizes the prevalence of these representations in the American literary imagination. Further, she names some reoccurring negative tropes of blackness. These include: “excessive, limitless love, anarchy or routine dread” (Morrison x).

 Discussion questions:

Question 1: How does this essay relate to other media representations of Blackness?

Question 2: How does colorism reinforce these Morrison’s ideas? In what literary works does colorism reinforce these ideas?

Tweet, tweet:

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0906/essay.jsp

 

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

6 March 2016

 Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Anzaldua

 Summary Sentence or Two:

In “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” Gloria Anzaldua argues that language is identity. The author examines the development of various Spanish languages and how they reflect the identity of the speaker.

Key terms:

  1. Chicano Spanish
  2. Linguistic Terrorism
  3. Chicana Feminists
  4. Dual Identity
  5. Copping Out

 

Term 1 significance: Chicano Spanish

 Anzaldua explains many in the Latino community; the Spanish spoken by Chicanos is a marred version of the language. However, she claims that the language is powerful in uniting those living on the borderlands, both as an identity signifier and as a means of covert communication.

Term 2 significance: Linguistic Terrorism

 The author details how Chicano Spanish speakers must contend with idea that they speak a disrespected language. This message could lead to a sense of suppressed shame or sense of powerlessness. These effects impact self-esteem and agency.

Term 3 significance: Copping Out

 Anzaldua writes about various possible dual identities that can lead to feeling that one is “nothing” since those in these identity categories straddle two cultures (2954). She includes definitions of Mestizo and Tejanos among others. The author points to the ties between language and identity. Copping out occurs when people do no claim all their identities in order to fit more easily into Anglo society.

Passage Paraphrase:

“Deep in our hearts we believe that being Mexican has nothing to do with the country one lives in. Being Mexican is a state of the soul—not one of mind, not one of citizenship” (Anzaldua 2954).

 Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Anzaldua seems to explain that being Mexican is an ethnic identity, less a nationality.

 Discussion questions:

Question 1:

If language is part of identity and ethnicity, how do variations of languages change the identities and ethnicities of the speakers?

Question 2:

How do Chicanos experience the job market?

Tweet, tweet:

 https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/postcolonialstudies/2014/06/20/chicana-feminism/

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

6 March 2016

 Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Saldivar

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Historical Fantasy, Speculative Realism, and Postrace Aesthetics in Contemporary American Fiction,” Ramon Saldivar develops the idea of postrace theory. The author examines fantasy and history in ethnic American literature and delineates possible changes in protest literature in particular.

Key terms:

  1. Postrace
  2. Parabasis
  3. Schlegelian Romantic Irony
  4. Commodity fetishism
  5. Symbolic action

Term 1 significance: Postrace

 Saldivar defines postrace theory as his major argument. In his article, Saldivar examines works by Junot Diaz and Salvador Plascencia to illuminate the multiplying various ways in which race, ceasing to be a strictly dualistic concept, is molded by real or imagined histories of conquest and inequality.

Term 2 significance: Parabasis

 The author recalls an ancient comedy form to help explain how ethnic authors communicate directly to their audience through fantasy. Saldivar argues that this method will allow authors to imply that the world is neither real nor make-believe. Rather, the author can oscillate between these possibilities. This form is particularly useful to Saldivar’s argument that postrace authors question the ability of realist protest fiction to produce results.

Term 3 significance: Symbolic action

 In his article, Saldivar argues that postrace authors like Junot Diaz and Salvador Placencia challenge illusions of American democracy and “real” history to create worlds in which the real and the illusory coexist. These efforts seem to be meant to galvanize those who are lost under current histories in the American imaginary due to injustice. Symbolic action occurs, according to Saldivar, when writers like Junot Diaz and Salvador Placencia try to effect social change in a less direct way than previous ethnic American writers.

Passage Paraphrase:

 “With its link to history, in this novel, fantasy is no longer simply a private, licentious matter creating a world of pleasure without obligation to what is permissible or possible outside the realm of fantasy” (Saldivar 592)

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

 Saldivar seems to be arguing that once something is imagined on a public stage, those who understand it are obliged to imagine the consequences or results of those fantasies and perhaps consider why fantasies concerning histories exist in the first place.

Discussion questions:

Question 1:

What are some public collective historical fantasies non-ethic citizens have about the United States? What are privileges are attached to those fantasies?

Question 2:

Can reading fantasy and science fiction be change-making  and escapist? For which audiences?

Tweet, tweet:

 http://www.blog.complimedia.com/ebook/0786432306-The-Influence-Imagination-Science-Fiction.html

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

11 March 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Hanna

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “‘REASSEMBLING THE FRAGMENTS’ Battling Historiographies, Caribbean Discourse, and Nerd Genres in Junot Díaz’s The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao,” Monica Hanna claims Junot Diaz employs comics to create a transnational imaginary between those who live in the Dominican Republic and those living in the diaspora.

Key terms:

  1. Historiography
  2. Diaspora
  3. Resistance History
  4. Genre
  5. Narrator- Historian

.

Term 1 significance: Historiography

Hanna shows Diaz to disagree with previous methods of recording history in the Dominican Republic. She specifically traces Diaz’s dislike for the ways in which those in power record history to suit their aims.

Term 2 significance: Diaspora

 Diaz uses magical realism in a new way—to create a transnational imaginary that can help solidify relationships and identities between people in the Dominican Republic and those living in diaspora. Hanna claims that this is a new development in ethnic literature.

Term 3 significance: Narrator-Historian

 In her article, Hanna names Yunior a “narrator-historian” in order to better define his role in the novel. This term seems to be innocuous however; it belies Diaz’s intentions for his novel. Namely, that he seems to believe that all who record history, real or imagined, spoken or written, are historians in their own right.

Passage Paraphrase:

“Other “nerd” genres—science fiction and fantasy most prominently, which Yunior sometimes refers to simply as “genre”—also figure heavily in the text. These forms provide historical and narrative models whose forms lie outside of the power structures Yunior wishes to resist.”

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Hanna claims the author employs genre, especially science fiction and fantasy, to subvert the power structures embedded in more popular literary forms.

 Discussion questions:

Question 1:What are other literary forms that subvert dominant power structures? Is intention necessary for subversion?

Question 2: How is Diaz’s magical realism inspired transnational imaginary differing from Anzaldua’s Borderlands imaginary and identity?

Tweet, tweet:

http://ias.umn.edu/2009/04/07/gutierrez/

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

11 March 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Said

 Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Orientalism,” Edward Said argues that the “Oriental” upholds the subjugated half of a binary with the “Occidental.” Furthermore, he discusses specific kinds of power operating under imperial or colonial rule and related them to transnational dialogues.

Key terms:

  1. Orientalism
  2. Occidental
  3. Hegemony
  4. Political
  5. Strategic Location

.

Term 1 significance: Orientalism

 Said shows that Europeans have spoken for non-Europeans in such a way that they have created a false identity for another group of people as a means to promote colonization and European ideals.

Term 2 significance: Political

 Said explains that he fears the perpetuation of British, French and American domination. He explains that all studies, writing and communication, literary to government sponsored, wield a political power to promote the imagined image of “Orientals” created by Europeans.

Term 3 significance: Strategic Location

 In his article, Said explains he will begin his study of Oriental texts by examining his particular location to it. He argues that the sheer volume of texts make it impossible to start studying these texts chronologically.

Passage Paraphrase:

“I doubt that it is controversial, for example, to say that an Englishman in India or Egypt in the later nineteenth century took an interest in those countries that was never far from their status in his mind as British colonies. To say this may seem quite different from saying that all academic knowledge about India and Egypt is somehow tinged and impressed with, violated by, the gross political fact—and yet that is what I am saying in this study of Orientalism” (Said 11).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

Said claims that European ideals mute all scholarly information and awareness in India and Egypt. Further, he argues that Europeans previously viewed the Egypt and India through the lens of colonization at almost or perhaps all times.

 Discussion questions:

Question 1: How did the differences in the national imaginaries of France, England, and America shape the contours of the image of the Oriental?

Question 2: How would an individual writer change the course of Orientalism?

Tweet, tweet:

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/euor/hd_euor.htm

 

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

21 March 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Casanova

Summary Sentence or Two:

In the ‘Introduction,” and “Principles of a World History of Literature” Pascale Casanova agrees with Paul Valery that Civilizations and Cultures have value (13). Specifically, he argues that certain civilizations and cultures have political power over world literature and its formal aspects.

Key terms:

  1. Translators
  2. Capitol
  3. Historical Chronology
  4. National Character
  5. Floral Figuration

Term 1 significance: Translators

 Casanova gives translators the task of introducing literature from non-literary spaces into the global conversation

Term 2 significance: Historical Chronology

 The author details historical chronology is less important to literary studies than literary chronology and the mapping of literary spaces.

Term 3 significance: National Character

 Casanova argues that it is possible that writers need to transcend their national heritage in order to become more globally impactful. Further, he explains that the location of the author’s birth will mitigate their connection to the global market, specifically the market for writers.

Passage Paraphrase:

“The accounts of Paris composed by foreigners and brought back to their own countries became remote vehicles for belief in its literary power” (Casanova 27).

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

The myths of literary power in Paris perpetuated themselves through visitors and tourists who gave testimony to the city’s artistic authority.

 Discussion questions:

Question 1:

Does the myth of Paris exist today?

Question 2:

How do myths of national literary powers change the ways writers get published?

Tweet, tweet:

 http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/france/paris/experiences/news/photos/10-great-spots-in-paris-with-a-literary-history

http://www.understandfrance.org/Paris/AmericanWriters.html

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

21 March 2016

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources- Spivak

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Can the Subaltern Speak,” Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak argues that those without access to the dominant discourse have no voice in their representation. Specifically, the author examines colonial ideologies in India.

Key terms:

  1. True Subaltern
  2. Subaltern
  3. Strategic Essentialism
  4. Spivak’s Sentence
  5. Alterities

Term 1 significance: Alterities

 Spivak explains that all “Othered” identities or philosophies are subjugated by a central western ideology or ideologies.   Futher she conceptualizes those operating under any other premise.

Term 2 significance: Subaltern

The author details how Subaltern people or ideas will never fully submit to the overriding western point of view. For example, language can be used as a way to speak one’s true self in the face of oppression.

Term 3 significance: Strategic Essentialism

Spivak writes about various possible problems concerning making gross oversimplifications about the characteristics of specific groups of people. However, she does seem to relate that this can be useful in situations where an unequal power balance becomes clear.

Passage Paraphrase:

“White men saving brown women from brown men” (Spivak 2204)

Rephrase the passage in your own words:

 Spivak calls attention to the colonialist viewpoints in which Indian practices were labeled brutal and cruel to women. Therefore the British felt justified in deciding what was acceptable in Indian society based on Western ideologies.

Discussion questions:

Question 1:

How does the body speak? Is it only in death?

Question 2:

How can the true subaltern preserve itself?

Tweet, tweet:

http://www.culanth.org/curated_collections/6-subaltern-studies

http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~dludden/ReadingSS_INTRO.pdf

 

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr.Strombeck

ENG 7010

4 April  2016

 

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources

 

Summary:

 

In “In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives,” Judith Halberstam delineates the ways in which gay and lesbian subcultures manifest queer spaces in which homosexual people congregate and share experiences with variously classed peers. She also details the ways in which gay and lesbian lives can operate on a different timetable than heterosexual people.

 

 

Key terms:

  1. Time of Reproduction
  2. Postmodern Geography
  3. Gender Flexability
  4. Queer Time
  5. Queer Space

 

Term 1 significance: Queer Time

 

This term is significant to Halberstam’s argument because she uses it to point to the ways that compulsory heterosexuality shapes the timed and periodic meanings of heterosexual lives. She argues that homosexual lives are not always assessed in the same ways.

 

 

 

 

 

Term 2 significance: Queer Place

 

Queer Space refers to Halberstam’s concept that some spaces are reclaimed by sexual minorities to interact with various classes of people under the premise of their sexuality. In this situations queerness and queer behaviors and sexuality are not thought of as nonnormative.

 

Term 3 significance: Gender Flexibility

Sedgwick discusses the possibility of the gender flexibility to be used as a marketing tool and to reframe the possibility of a new “homonormativity” in which the elite have more (perceived) flexible genders (19).

 

 

Passage Paraphrase:

 

“The division between urban and rural or urban and small town has had a major impact on the ways in which queer community has been formed and perceived in the United States” (Sedgwick 15).

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

 

As Sedgwick recalls the deaths of two queer people she explains that in the rural areas or small towns, queer people are often without the community that comes with queer time and space.

 

Discussion questions:

Question 1: How are rural places scenes for violence toward queer people differently that urban places?

Question 2: What would be the positive effect of the intersection of class and gender in place and time?

 

Tweet:

 

http://www.matthewshepard.org/

 

http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=132702

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

4 April 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources

 

 

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “The Beast in the Closet: James and the Writing of Homosexual Panic” Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick presents a framework for understanding male fear of homosexuality in Henry James work.

 

Key terms:

  1. Male Homosexual Panic
  2. Manipulability
  3. Paranoid Gothic
  4. The Closet
  5. The Bachelor

 

Term 1 significance: Male Homosexual Panic

Sedgwick explains that men can only rise to the top of the social hierarchy by defining themselves as non-homosexuals. She details the efforts men take to avoid losing their power acting in homophobic ways such as assuming a compulsory heterosexuality.

 

Term 2 significance: Paranoid Gothic

 

Sedgwick details well-known character “doubles” of Romantic fiction and marks their homophobic relationships. She further states that these relationships, including those found in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818), often have violent undertones. This is a key point for the author as she uses it to springboard her discussion of the Bachelor stereotype and then compares the two “types” of literary homosexual figures.

 

Term 3 significance: The Closet

Sedgwick points to the scene in which May Bartram solidifies John Marcher’s homosexual isolation by claiming that the beast owns him. The author situates the character’s homosexual self-ignorance in his fear of his fate.

 

 

Passage Paraphrase:

“I am convinced, however, that part of the point of the story is that the reifying effect of periphrasis and preterition on this particular meaning is, if anything, more damaging than (though not separable from) its obliterative effect” (Sedgwick 204)

 

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

After recalling the point at which she feels Marcher’s homosexuality becomes the most plain, Sedgewick asserts that she feels that when homosexuality is most transparent in the character– it is more tragic because it is still hidden and the character is lost to himself.

 

Discussion questions:

Pose two meaningful questions that are designed to stimulate discussion in the seminar.

 

Question 1: How does the closet hide May Bertram’s sexuality as well? Hoe does it display it?

 

Question 2: How does the bachelor compare to the dandy? When does this separation take place?

 

 

Tweet, tweet:

http://blog.uta.edu/~timothyr/2009/03/08/march-11-sedgwick-%E2%80%9Cthe-beast-in-the-closet%E2%80%9D/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/arts/15sedgwick.html?_r=0

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

18 April 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources

 

 

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics” Diana Coole and Samantha Frost imagine a method of critique that assigns meaning to matter in an interdisciplinary and transnational way.

 

Key terms:

  1. Matter
  2. Empiricism
  3. Biopolitics
  4. The encounter
  5. Posthumanist

 

Term 1 significance: Matter

Coole and Frost designate matter with agency and meaning. These agencies and meanings directly impact human ideas of dominance, history and politics.

 

Term 2 significance: Empiricism

Coole and Frost disagree that “pure” science can explain the agentic capacity of matter to regenerate.

 

Term 3 significance: The Encounter

Coole and Front situate humans and materials as atoms in relation to each other without a hierarchy. These authors believe that allowing this equality will lead to better geopolitical and environmentally ethical policies, among many other positive changes.

 

 

Passage Paraphrase:

“History emerges here as the continuous transformation of provisional forms by new, indecipherable and unanticipated events” (Coole and Frost 35).

 

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

A new understanding of the materials around us will forever alter the coarse of human events. Furthermore, these events will be continuously reexamined to infinitude.

 

 

 

Discussion questions:

Pose two meaningful questions that are designed to stimulate discussion in the seminar.

 

Question 1: How does human dominance over material change the environment?

 

Question 2: What would assuming materials’ agency look like on a daily basis?

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

18 April 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources

 

 

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Why has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern,” Bruno Latour claims that intellectual naiveté and coherence to knowledge building is based on oversimplified ideas.

 

Key terms:

1.Instant Revisionism

  1. Matters of Concern
  2. Matters of Fact
  3. Thing
  4. Object

 

Term 1 significance: Instant revisionism

Latour explains that history is subjective and to work within that frame a critic needs to recognize that. Objectivity, from a simple and single standpoint is not truly helpful.

 

Term 2 significance: Matters of Fact/ Matters of Concern

Latour details how these two concepts actually refer to the same history in different contexts. Imagining that “facts” or indeed “concerns” frees up these ideas to new interpretations that might be more honest.

 

 

Term 3 significance: Thing/ Object

Latour claims that there is no definite way to establish a thing from an object—it is all relative to the conception of the material at hand. The preciousness of in item should not be based on a visible history of “worth” but should be kept under constant view to access the invible web of meaning attached to it.

 

 

Passage Paraphrase:

“Of course, we in the academy like to use more elevated

causes—society, discourse, knowledge-slash-power, fields of forces, empires, capitalism—while conspiracists like to portray a miserable bunch of greedy people with dark intents, but I find something troublingly similar in the structure of the explanation, in the first movement of disbelief and, then, in the wheeling of causal explanations coming out of the deep dark below.” (Lator 229-230).

 

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

Academics and lay theorists have the same way of connecting meaning to events. They both attribute “causes” of events to unseen actors.

 

Discussion questions:

Pose two meaningful questions that are designed to stimulate discussion in the seminar.

 

Question 1: Who benefits from a more realist critique in academia?

 

Question 2: Are objects subjective if they exist as part of a social group?

 

Stephanie Brooks

Dr. Strombeck

ENG 7010

18 April 2016

 

Worksheet for Weekly Response to Primary Sources

 

 

Summary Sentence or Two:

In “Are We Postcritical?” Matthew Mullins reviews Rita Felski’s book, The Limits of Critique.

 

Key terms:

  1. Dispassionate tone
  2. Critical Thinking
  3. Intellectual Virtues
  4. The Answer
  5. Hermeneutics of Suspicion

 

Term 1 significance: Dispassionate Tone

Mullins talks about how Felski describes critics need to appear objective when critique is actually a very passionate pursuit.

 

Term 2 significance:

Mullins explains that Felski has a contentions relationship with the idea of the “ right answer” when it comes to criticism.

 

Term 3 significance: Intellectual Virtues

Mullins shows that Felski believes that literary critisicm has become stale and lost its fervor.

 

 

Passage Paraphrase:

By exploring its limits, Felski frees critics from relying on critique as the gatekeeper of literary studies and offers a prescient guide to life in a postcritical world.

 

https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/are-we-postcritical/

 

Rephrase the passage in your own words.

 

Books need to be read on their own merits.

 

Discussion questions:

Pose two meaningful questions that are designed to stimulate discussion in the seminar.

 

Question 1: How does this relate to reader-response criticism?

 

Question 2: Do we loose meaning if we lose critique?